# Our shaky isles

I had planned to write about other things this week.  But given the earthquakes in NZ recently seismic activity is on my mind!  I have had a long standing interest in the way the earth works - the fluids that flow within and on its crust, and the forces that conspire to shape and continuously remodel the earth's structure.  This interest may go all the way back my birth since the earth shook as  I was preparing to make my entrance into the world.  Four hours before I was born the hospital my mother was in rocked with a 6.6 magnitude earthquake (with an epicentre close to Owhango). A 3.95 magnitude quake happened just as I was delivered.

Fast forward several decades ... and the research my graduate students and I undertake applies a range of mathematical and computational tools to understand the earth.  Micro-seismic activity is one data set of interest.  Micro-seismic events generally have magnitude less than 2.  The Richter scale is a logarithmic one, so a magnitude 3 quake is 10 times larger than a 2,  a magnitude 4 is 100 times larger than 2, ... and a magnitude 7 is 100,000 times larger than a 2.  Such quakes are imperceptible by  humans and need sensitive geophysical equipment deployed in boreholes to detected.  However there are large numbers of these very small events which can make them a rich data set to explore.

One of my PhD students, Jongchan Kim, is working with micro-seismic data from a portion of the Wairakei geothermal field.  He's integrating it into a model that addresses fluid flow, heat flow and changes in mechanical stress in the field.  The micro-seismic data gives us insight into the permeability of the rocks involved, and the faults that exist in the reservoir.

Another PhD student, Jeremy Riffault (working wtih David Dempsey and I) is building numerical modelling approaches to help understand the micro-earthquakes which may occur during the development of enhanced geothermal systems.

Our shaky isles have some significant faults  (geologically speaking!). The recent quake activity shown below is challenging infrastructure, and has sadly caused fatalities.  However further north faults form an important component of the Taupo Volcanic Zone which provides the geological setting for most of the country's geothermal energy production.  That clean energy source produces around 16% of electricity per year.  So our faulted geology has its upsides!

Map showing location of the M7.8 epicenter (star), M > 3.0 aftershocks up until 04:20 NZ time on the 18th November (n = 1,782). Credit: Google Earth/ GNS Science, CC BY 3.0 NZ

# School’s out for summer!

The last exam for the year took place on campus today.  So school's out for summer!  That does not mean the lyrics of the well known Alice Cooper song are drifting through the corridors.  Nor does it mean my staff and I are about to start a long summer break.

Research and innovation are part of the role academic staff have year round.  However when lectures and exams finish it's a prime opportunity to focus on research.  Summer is often a time to incubate and test new ideas.  Research directions that have promise may then be developed into funding proposals for external funding to support the work we do.  In particular there are deadlines for the Marsden fund during the summer.  That fund plays the very important role is supporting "blue sky research" driven by curiosity of the researchers, on projects where a commercial return is uncertain.  The return on such research can however be immense (for example Alexander Fleming's discovery of penicillin).

Marsden funding is competitive and highly prestigious.  Only 25% of proposals make it through the first round of evaluation.  Ultimately only around 11% of proposals succeed. The odds of success mean the application process is not for the faint-hearted!

In the latest round the Department of Engineering Science was very pleased to see one of it's senior lecturers (Dr Andrea Raith) awarded a \$300,000 "Fast Start" Marsden grant for her work on solving multiobjective optimisation problems (MOPs), integrating ideas of problem decomposition and techniques to more effectively deal with complexity in MOPs.  That might sound abstract - however Andrea's work has significant applications in transportation, for example in deciding how to prioritise cycling infrastructure projects.

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